Archive for the ‘technology’ Category

Description: This is a simple-to-use liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sensor, suitable for sensing LPG (composed of mostly propane and butane) concentrations in the air. The MQ-6 can detect gas concentrations anywhere from 200 to 10000ppm.

This sensor has a high sensitivity and fast response time. The sensor’s output is an analogy resistance. The drive circuit is very simple; all you need to do is power the heater coil with 5V, add a load resistance, and connect the output to an ADC.

11 12

LPG Gas Sensor (MQ6) Features:

High Sensitivity to LPG, iso-butane, propane

Small sensitivity to alcohol, smoke

Detection Range: 100 – 10,000 ppm iso-butane propane

Fast Response Time: <10s

Simple drive circuit

Heater Voltage: 5.0V

Dimensions:

18mm Diameter

17mm High excluding pins

Pins – 6mm High

 Applications:

Gas leak detection system

Fire/Safety detection system

Gas leak alarm

Gas detector

13

Instructions: The above fig is the basic test circuit of MQ-6.The sensor requires two voltage inputs: heater voltage (VH) and circuit voltage(VC). VH is used to supply standard working temperature to the sensor and it can adopt DC or AC power, while VRL is the voltage of load resistance RL which is in series with sensor. Vc supplies the detect voltage to load resistance RL and it should adopts DC power.

 

ARDUINO UNO FULL DETAIL

Posted: April 27, 2017 in technology

Source: ARDUINO UNO FULL DETAIL

The Arduino Uno is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328 (datasheet). It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started. The Uno differs from all preceding boards in that it does not use the FTDI USB-to-serial driver chip. Instead, it features the Atmega8U2 programmed as a USB-to-serial converter.

SUMMARY:

KIT

THE BOARD:

KIT1

The Arduino Uno can be powered via the USB connection or with an external power supply. The power source is selected automatically. External (non-USB) power can come either from an AC-to-DC adapter (wall-wart) or battery. The adapter can be connected by plugging a 2.1mm center-positive plug into the board’s power jack. Leads from a battery can be inserted in the Gnd and Vin pin headers of the POWER connector.

The board can operate on an external supply of 6 to 20 volts. If supplied with less than 7V, however, the 5V pin may supply less than five volts and the board may be unstable. If using more than 12V, the voltage regulator may overheat and damage the board. The recommended range is 7 to 12 volts.

The power pins are as follows:

  • VIN. The input voltage to the Arduino board when it’s using an external power source (as opposed to 5 volts from the USB connection or other regulated power source). You can supply voltage through this pin, or, if supplying voltage via the power jack, access it through this pin.
  • 5V. The regulated power supply used to power the microcontroller and other components on the board. This can come either from VIN via an on-board regulator, or be supplied by USB or another regulated 5V supply.
  • 3.3 volt supply generated by the on-board regulator. Maximum current draw is 50 mA.
  • GND. Ground pins.

MEMORY:

The Atmega328 has 32 KB of flash memory for storing code (of which 0,5 KB is used for the bootloader); It has also 2 KB of SRAM and 1 KB of EEPROM (which can be read and written with the EEPROM library).

INPUT AND OUTPUT:

Each of the 14 digital pins on the Uno can be used as an input or output, using pinMode(), digitalWrite(), and digitalRead() functions. They operate at 5 volts. Each pin can provide or receive a maximum of 40 mA and has an internal pull-up resistor (disconnected by default) of 20-50 kOhms. In addition, some pins have specialized functions:

  • Serial: 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). Used to receive (RX) and transmit (TX) TTL serial data. TThese pins are connected to the corresponding pins of the ATmega8U2 USB-to-TTL Serial chip.
  • External Interrupts: 2 and 3. These pins can be configured to trigger an interrupt on a low value, a rising or falling edge, or a change in value. See the attachInterrupt() function for details.
  • PWM: 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, and 11. Provide 8-bit PWM output with the analogWrite() function.
  • SPI: 10 (SS), 11 (MOSI), 12 (MISO), 13 (SCK). These pins support SPI communication, which, although provided by the underlying hardware, is not currently included in the Arduino language.
  • LED: 13. There is a built-in LED connected to digital pin 13. When the pin is HIGH value, the LED is on, when the pin is LOW, it’s off.

In this system water sensing can be done by using a set of 4 switch which are placed at different levels in tank. DC supply probe is placed at the base of the tank.

 

Circuit Components:

At89c51 controller.

At89c51 programming board.

16*2 LCD.

5V Relay.

Bc547 (NPN) transistors – 1.

Resistors (10K) – 1.

Programming cable.

Connecting wires.

 

Water Level Controller using 8051 Circuit Design:

 

The main heart of this project is AT89C51 microcontroller. The water level probes are connected to the P3.0, P3.1, P3.2, and P3.3 through the switch and P3.4 is motor connecter.  Port P2 connected to the data pins of LCD and control pins RS, RW and EN of LCD are connected to the P1.0, P1.1, and P1.2 respectively.

 

Initially when tank is empty, LCD will display the message EMPTY and motor runs automatically. When water level reaches to quarter level, now LCD displays QUARTER and still motor runs. For further levels, LCD displays the messages HALF and ¾ FULL.

 

When tank is full, LCD displays FULL and motor automatically stops. Again motor runs when tank is empty.

 

Program:

#include<reg51.h>

sbit rs=P1^0;

sbit rw=P1^1;

sbit e=P1^2;

sbit quat=P3^0; // Quad water level

sbit half=P3^1; // half level of tank

sbit quat_3=P3^2; // three -fourth level of tank

sbit full=P3^3;   //full level of tank

sbit motor=P3^4;  //pin connected to motor

 

void delay(int k) //delay function

{

int i,j;

for(i=0;i<k;i++)

for(j=0;j<1275;j++);

}

 

void write(int j)

{

rs=1;  //selecting rs pin to data mode

rw=0;  //selecting rw pin to write mode

P2=j;  //putting value on the pins

e=1;  //high pulse

delay(1);

e=0;       // low pulse

return;

}

 

void cmd(int j)  //command function

{

P2=j;  //put the data on pins

rs=0;  //selecting rw pin to command mode

rw=0;  //selecting to write

e=1;

delay(1);

e=0;

return;

}

 

void puts(char *a) // function to display string on LCD’

{

unsigned int p=0;

for(;a[p]!=0;p++)

write(a[p]);

}

 

void lcd_init(void) // function to initialise the LCD

{

cmd(0x38);

delay(1);

cmd(0x0c); //LCD turning on cmd

delay(1);

cmd(0x01); //clear lcd cmd

cmd(0x80); // starting point of LCD

}

 

void main()

{

lcd_init();             //LCD intialization

quat=half=quat_3=full=1; //configuring as input pins

quat=half=quat_3=full=0; //lowering input pins

motor = 0;

while(1)

{

if(quat==0&&half==0&&quat_3==0&&full==0)   //when tank is empty

{

cmd(0x80);                      // to move the cursor to starting point of LCD

puts(“EMPTY   “);      // dispalys empty on lcd

motor=1;                                                                                                             // start motor

}

else if(quat==1&&half==0&&quat_3==0&&full==0)      // when tank is quater

{

cmd(0x80);

puts(“QUATER   “);     // dispalys Quarter on lcd

}

else if(quat==1&&half==1&&quat_3==0&&full==0)      // when tank is half

{

cmd(0x80);

puts(“HALF    “);      // dispalys half on lcd

}

else if(quat==1&&half==1&&quat_3==1&&full==0)      // when tank is three-fourth

{

cmd(0x80);

puts(“3/4 FULL   “);     // dispalys 3/4 full on lcd

}

else if(quat==1&&half==1&&quat_3==1&&full==1)      // when tank is full

{

cmd(0x80);

puts(“FULL    “);    // dispalys full on lcd

motor=0;            // to stop the motor

}

}

}

 

 

 

 

Circuit Diagram:

WATER

Renault lodgy world edition

Posted: September 27, 2016 in technology

FEATURES: EXTERIOR Body coloured bumpers Jewel-studded front grille Chrome upper grille moulding Front fog lamps with chrome surround Body coloured ORVMs Body coloured outside door handles R15 Nept…

Source: Renault lodgy world edition

Mahindra Supro Diesel Van

Posted: September 27, 2016 in technology

EX-SHOWROOM PRICE Mahindra Supro LX Price: Rs 4,38,000 Mahindra Supro VX Price: Rs 4,58,000 Mahindra Supro ZX Price: Rs 4,93,000 Body Type MUV Tagline Stylish 8 Seater Diesel Van Specifications: Th…

Source: Mahindra Supro Diesel Van

Renault lodgy world edition

Posted: September 26, 2016 in technology

FEATURES: EXTERIOR Body coloured bumpers Jewel-studded front grille Chrome upper grille moulding Front fog lamps with chrome surround Body coloured ORVMs Body coloured outside door handles R15 Nept…

Source: Renault lodgy world edition

FEATURES:604_renault-lodgy-world-edition_kv_01_fin1_rgb_3072x1728-jpg-ximg-s_12_h-smart

EXTERIOR

Body coloured bumpers

Jewel-studded front grille

Chrome upper grille moulding

Front fog lamps with chrome surround

Body coloured ORVMs

Body coloured outside door handles

R15 Nepta finish alloy wheels

Dual-tone roof rails with chrome satin finish

Printed matte + textured B&C pillar stripping

Front & rear skid plate

Front & rear wheel cladding

WORLD EDITION side and rear decal

Side sill with jet black finish

Body coloured rear spoiler

WORLD EDITION badge

INTERIOR:

Dashboard with chrome finish centre trims

New anodized orange finish on air vents

Classic gris fume door trim

Glossy black foam steering wheel with two-toned

WORLD EDITION badge

Stylish vinyl gear shift bellows with classy contrast stitch

Chrome parking brake lever button

Chrome inside door handle

Gear shift knob with chrome finish in centre ring

Instrument cluster with anodized orange finish centre ring

Anodized orange accentuated LODGY floor mats

Sill plates

Piano black centre fascia

AC control knob with chrome finish

Cabin lamp – 3 rows

SEATING:

Seating capacity & configuration – 8S (2+3+3)

2nd row seat type – 60:40 split

New seat fabric upholstery with anodized orange accents

Reclining 2nd row seat

2nd row armrest with cup holders

Tumble fold 2nd & 3rd row seat

3rd row 50:50 split backrest

Removable 3rd row seat

604_renault-lodgy-world-edition_50-50-jpg-ximg-s_12_h-smart

COMFORT & CONVENIENCE

Electro-hydraulic power steering and Tilt steering

Front heater & air conditioner with cabin filter

Roof mounted 2nd & 3rd row AC

Front and rear power windows

2 DIN audio system with CD, AUX-in, USB & Bluetooth®

Arkamys® tuned music system

4 Speakers

Electrically adjustable ORVMs

Keyless entry

Headlight ‘ON’ reminder

Digital clock

12 volt socket -1st & 2nd row

SAFETY & SECURITY

ABS + EBD + Brake Assist

Driver airbag

Engine immobilizer

Central locking

Auto door lock

Door ajar warning – 4 doors

Driver seat belt reminder

Rear door child lock

Come to 2 variants:

  Lodgy 85 PS Lodgy 110 PS
Displacement (cc): 1461 1461
Engine type dCi diesel with fixed geometry turbo dCi diesel with VGT
Max. engine power (PS) 85 PS @ 3750 rpm 110 PS @ 4000 rpm
Max. engine torque (Nm) 200 Nm @ 1900 rpm 245 Nm @ 1750 rpm
Transmission type 5-speed manual with reverse 6-speed manual with reverse
Min. turning radius (m) 5.5 5.5
Wheels & tyres 185/65 R15 Nepta alloys 185/65 R15 Nepta alloys
Suspension type

 

Front McPherson strut with anti-roll bar

Rear Torsion beam with anti-roll bar

 

Front McPherson strut with anti-roll bar

Rear Torsion beam with anti-roll bar

 

 

Steering type Electro-hydraulic power steering

 

 

yes

 

 

yes

 

Braking system

 

Type Diagonal split hydraulic braking system

Front Ventilated disc

Rear Drum

 

Type Diagonal split hydraulic braking system

Front Ventilated disc

Rear Drum

 

Length

Width

Height

4498

1751

1697

4498

1751

1697

Dimensions (mm)

Wheelbase

Front track

Rear track

Ground clearance

 

2810

1490

1478

174

 

2810

1490

1478

174

Fuel efficiency

 

21.04 Km/L 19.98 Km/L
Boot space: With 3 rows upright 207

With 3rd row tumble fold 589

(l) With 3rd row extracted

& 2nd row in position 759

With 2nd row tumbled

& 3rd row twin tumbled 1861

 

With 3 rows upright 207

With 3rd row tumble fold 589

(l) With 3rd row extracted

& 2nd row in position 759

With 2nd row tumbled

& 3rd row twin tumbled 1861

 

Fuel tank capacity

 

50lt

 

 50lt

 

 

Kerb weight (kg)

 

1315

 

 

1353

 

picture: AC variants 2nd and 3rd row

car_picture-8

picture: speed meter with digital trip meter.

56

picture: white colour.

picture: black colour

55

Mahindra Supro Diesel Van

Posted: September 26, 2016 in technology

EX-SHOWROOM PRICE Mahindra Supro LX Price: Rs 4,38,000 Mahindra Supro VX Price: Rs 4,58,000 Mahindra Supro ZX Price: Rs 4,93,000 Body Type MUV Tagline Stylish 8 Seater Diesel Van Specifications: Th…

Source: Mahindra Supro Diesel Van

EX-SHOWROOM PRICE

Mahindra Supro LX Price: Rs 4,38,000
Mahindra Supro VX Price: Rs 4,58,000
Mahindra Supro ZX Price: Rs 4,93,000

Body Type MUV

Tagline Stylish 8 Seater Diesel Van1100

Specifications: This come with 3 variants in the market

 

the LX is normal vatiants it will not come with AC and power steering in both 8 seater and 5 seater

the VX is upgate vatiants it will come with power steering in both 8 seater and 5 seater

the ZX is more upgate vatiants it will come with AC and power steering in  5 seater only no 8 seater option.

mahindra-supro-interior

Engine:

mahindra-supro-features

Displacement 909 cc

Maximum Power 45 HP @ 3750 rpm

Maximum Torque 98 NM @ 1600 – 3000 rpm

Gearbox 5 Forward and 1 Reverse

Kerb Weight 1210 kg

Fuel Tank Capacity 33 litres

Clutch Type Single Plate Dry

Overall Length 3798 mm

Overall Width 1540 mm

Overall Height 1910 mm

Wheelbase 1950 mm

Kerb Weight 1210 kg

Gross Vehicle Weight 1655 kg

Fuel Tank Capacity 33 litres

Front Brakes Disc

Rear Brakes Drum

Front Suspension McPherson Strut with Coil Spring

this are the view picture of supro: inside view 8 people can seat in relax way no problem in seating

picture: Speed meter will look like very easy to see

mahindra-supro-3-300x300

picture: Color variants of van car it is not available in red color.

images

picture: Models will look like this

20151016015600_op

picture:Inside view of models this is 5 seater van look

0_0_860_http-cdni-autocarindia-com-galleries-20151016015617_3

picture: How the AC variants look you can put music system.

0_0_860_http-cdni-autocarindia-com-galleries-20151016015611_1

picture: This is auto expo picture: